In addition to its work with the WTO, the United States has concluded trade agreements with 20 countries that cover a number of issues, ranging from tariffs on goods and access to the agricultural market to intellectual property and the environment. For the FDA, the specific themes are chapters of agreements on regulatory issues such as SPS measures, OBTs and good regulatory practices – as well as sector chapters on cosmetics, medical devices and drugs, if any. The FDA helps develop negotiation proposals in the United States and the FDA is actively involved in trade negotiations with U.S. trading partners. On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).
 NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only “suspended.”  Many analysts explain these different results by pointing out the “two-speed” nature of the Mexican economy, where NAFTA has led foreign investment growth, high-tech production and rising wages in the industrial north, while the largely agricultural South has remained disconnected from this new economy. University of Pennsylvania economist Mauro Guillen argued that Mexico`s growing inequality is due to NAFTA workers receiving much higher wages from trade-related activities in the north. The Trump administration`s office proposed the USMCA citing new measures for digital commerce, strengthening the protection of trade secrets and adapting the rules of origin of automobiles among the benefits of the trade agreement.  On August 27, 2018, the United States and Mexico reached an interim agreement in principle, subject to conclusion and implementation. On September 30, 2018, Canada and the United States agreed with Mexico on a new, modernized agreement. Canada ratified the agreement in March and the USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020. Although NAFTA is officially dead, governments and businesses are still adapting to the new rules, especially the new labour rules. Coronavirus can also complicate implementation as manufacturers adapt to new guidelines in the midst of a global economic crisis. Increasing the level of de minimis with major trading partners such as Mexico and Canada is an important outcome for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States. These SMEs often cannot afford to pay tariffs and taxes and bear the increase in compliance costs, which, due to their low trading volume, are due to lower-value emissions due to their low level of de-administration.